Notes on Vessels and Marine Events that changed History:
· The Sinking of Titanic rocked the shipping world to its core. The reaction came in the form of the International Convention For Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS) and subsequent reforms. It also lead to the establishment of the International Ice Patrol. Read Phil Sims paper: “Comparative Naval Architecture of Passenger Ships” to find out why Titanic had little fear of Icebergs.
· The fire aboard the Moro Castle lead to enhanced fire codes for ships such as fire safe boundaries could not have openings in the bulkheads above a false ceiling which had allowed the fire to spread. The Normandie is another Ship / fire case of note.
· The calamitous Andrea Doria- Stockholm collision between the two passenger liners heading in opposite directions on the Atlantic Ocean in 1956. It changed navigational rules, technology, and ship design forever.
· In January of 1943 a one day old T2 tanker, the USS Schenectady broke in half at the outfitting pier in waves that were at most 2 to 3 feet high. In the middle of World War Two, sabotage was immediately suspected. The subsequent investigation uncovered several things, that did not include Sabotage, What were they and what did that change in ship design?
· The first two aluminum hulled PBY Catalina Flying boats were being flight tested near San Diego California when they both sank next to the steel sheet piling pier to which they were tied with wire ropes. What did this “Sabotage”, investigation discover and how has it change the design and usage rules?
· Submarine Turtle in the American Revolutionary war almost changed History
· Submarine CSS Hunley was the first to ever sink an enemy ship and as such changed history
· When the ex Merrimac (turned Ironclad CSS Virginia) sailed out of the James River and sank the USS Congress, it changed the course of history in terms of ship design. The reaction was ready 1 day later in the form of a cheesebox on a raft, the USS Monitor which restored the balance of naval power by fighting the Virginia to a draw.
· The Kyrenia ship was attacked by Pirates and sank near Kyrenia on the North coast of Cypress in approximately 390 BCE. What innovation did this ship feature that then disappeared until the 18th century to protect wooden ships?
· Daryll Symonds “Decision at Sea” talks of a number of ships that changed the world.
· The sinking of the US Navy Submarine Squalus in 1939 followed by the loss of Thresher, and Scorpion, lead to the whole subsafe program in Naval Submarine building, testing and certification. The successful rescue of half the crew of Squalus from 200 feet down in 1939 pressed the need for the US Navy to maintain a Submarine Rescue capability that pretends to exist until today.
· The Battle of the Coral Sea where aircraft carriers fought to the death while hundreds of miles apart was a revolution in naval warfare similar to Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway in some respects.
· The Spanish Armada and the battle of Gravelines may contain topics of interest.
· The Battle off Yorktown between the French and English navies effectively ended the American Revolution.
· The Non-Battle of Narragansett bay that resulted in 5 British frigates, Cerberus, Orpheus, Juno, Rose and Flores, being run aground and burned to prevent capture by the larger French force effectively ended the British control of Narragansett Bay and thereby much of New England, during the American Revolution.
· The sinking of the DKM Bismarck broke Hitlers willingness to use capital ships to interdict convoys and so changed the war.
· The U-Boat wolf packs versus convoys system of WWII was a revolution of sorts that lingered in Navy tactics and practices up through the cold war.
· Guadalcanal and the battle for sea control, including the battle of Iron bottom sound, was again a different kind of warfare.
· The Great White Fleet and Teddy Roosevelt was a diplomatic revolution that lead to the US Navy establishing Navy bases for coal replenishment all around the world.
· Perry and the opening of Japan may again offer a forensic angle.
· Chinese fleet of exploration comprising hundreds of ships that explored as far as Africa. The next Emperor was xenophobic and closed China to the outside world for the next 500 years.
· Twice large fleets of hundred of vessels left China with the intent of conquering Japan and in both cases the fleet and up to 100,000 soldiers was destroyed by a typhoon that became the “Divine Wind” or “Kamakazi” in Japanese folk lore. They tried to summon this divine intervention towards the end of WWII when they felt that the homeland was threatened. This first high profile use of suicide bombers was a revolution in extremist warfare that is still shaking the world.